Lesson 18- Christmas: 4,000 Years of Tradition

The biggest Christian holiday of the year, the gold standard against which all secular holidays are measured, should have overwhelming
biblical approval and support. But where is it?

What is incorrect about the following statement: “Three wise men visited the infant Messiah in a manger to honor the day of His birth.”

Correct! Wrong!

d. Scripture mentions no specific number of wise men. Yahshua was in a house when the wise men came (Matt. 2:11). Herod’s edict to murder all children two years and under indicates that the Messiah could have been as much as two years old (Matt 2:16). The wise men came to honor the King of the Jews, not celebrate His birthday (Matt. 2:2).

Christmas is found in the New Testament and is mentioned by all early Church fathers.

Correct! Wrong!

b. Christmas is absent from the New Testament and from the writings of the early fathers. “The observance of Christmas is not of divine appointment, nor is it of N.T. origin. The day of [Messiah’s] birth cannot be ascertained from the N.T., or, indeed, from any other source. The fathers of the first three centuries do not speak of any special observance of the nativity” (Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature, 1981, Vol. 2, p. 276).

The date for Christmas was derived from the winter solstice and beliefs surrounding it.

Correct! Wrong!

a. The date of Christmas was derived from dates honoring the birth of the sun. Long before Christmas, pagans honored the birthday of a well-known Iranian or Persian deity, “December 25...was adopted by the church as Christmas, the nativity of [Yahshua], to counteract the effects of these [pagan] festivals” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., vol. 7, p. 202). German and Celtic tribes commemorated the return of the sun by a festival of yule, which, like other pagan celebrations, became adopted into Christmas (The Encyclopedia Americana, 1959, Vol. 6, p. 622, Christmas).

The adoption of many traditions now associated with Christmas relate directly to pagan converts and church tolerance.

Correct! Wrong!

a. The early church synchronized many idolatrous doctrines of foreign neighbors still practiced today, including Christmas rituals. “The influx of pagans into the church through the mass conversion movements of the era contributed to the paganization of worship as the church tried to make these Barbarian converts feel at home within its fold…” Christianity Through the Centuries, 3rd edition, pp. 152-153)

According to Persian custom, what similarity (ies) did Mithra share with the New Testament Messiah?

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d. In Mystery Religions in the Ancient World, Mithra was believed to be “the creator and orderer of the universe, hence a manifestation of the creative Logos or Word. Seeing mankind afflicted by Ahriman, the cosmic power of darkness, he incarnated on earth. His birth on 25 December was witnessed by shepherds. After many deeds he held a last supper with his disciples and returned to heaven. At the end of the world he will come again to judge resurrected mankind…” (p. 99). It is easy to see how the early Church was able to meld Mithraic rites into its own theology to attract everyone.

What similarity (ies) did the Roman festival of Saturnalia share with today’s Christmas observance?

Correct! Wrong!

d. Many of today’s Christmas traditions are rooted in a 2000-year old Roman celebration known as Saturnalia. According to The Encyclopedia Americana, “Saturnalia, a Roman feast celebrated in Mid-December, provided the model for many of the merry-making customs of Christmas. From this celebration, for example were derived the elaborate feasting, the giving of gifts, and the burning of candles. Lights also played na important part in most winter solstice festivals…” (1959, Vol. 6, Christmas, p. 622-623).

From evidence in the New Testament, Yahshua was likely born during what season?

Correct! Wrong!

c. Yahshua was likely born in the fall. Luke’s account says shepherds were watching over their flocks by night. Scholars have expressed doubt that shepherds would have been watching over their flocks in the cold winter, including Adam Clarke’s Commentary, “...our [Savior] was not born on the 25th of December, when no flocks were out in the fields; nor could He have been born later than September, as the flocks were still in the fields by night,” (note on Luke 2:8). Luke 2:1-7 states that Joseph was returning to Bethlehem from a required Roman census at the time of the Messiah’s birth. December is not conducive to travel. John the Baptist was six months older than Yahshua (Luke 1:26). According to the Companion Bible, John was likely conceived in the third Hebrew month, June 13-19 (Luke 1:5, 1Chron. 24:10). (Appendix 179, Section III). If John the Baptist was conceived in the month of Sivan, Yahshua was likely born in the seventh month (September/October), possibly during the Feast of Tabernacles.

Which Christian sect opposed the observance of Christmas?

Correct! Wrong!

a. The Puritans were so ardently against Christmas that with their influence the English Parliament in 1643 outlawed Christmas altogether, along with the saints’ days (Celebrations, p. 312).

Which Christian sect(s) do not observe Christmas on December 25?

Please select 2 correct answers

Correct! Wrong!

b., c. One might assume that Christianity would be united on the date for one of its most sacred observances; however, because of the lack of evidence to support the actual date of the Messiah’s birth there are numerous dates observed by different sects. “While Roman Catholics and Protestants generally observe Christmas on December 25, Orthodox Greek Catholics observe it on January 6 and the Armenian church on January 19” (A Book About the Bible, 1945, p. 23).

Which prophet warned of a heathen custom with striking resemblance to today’s Christmas tree?

Correct! Wrong!

b. The prophet Jeremiah admonished Israel not to learn the ways of the heathen, which included a warning against tree worship, which has striking resemblance to today’s Christmas tree (Jer. 10:2-5). Tree worship has a long and ancient history, which can be found in almost every part of the world. “...tree worship is well attested for all the great European families of the Aryan stock. Amongst the Celts the oak-worship of the Druids is familiar to everyone. Sacred groves were common among the ancient Germans, and tree -worship is hardly extinct among their descendants at the present day” (James Frazer, The Golden Bough, p. 58).

The tradition of Santa Claus is derived from what patron saint?

Correct! Wrong!

c. According to the Encyclopedia Americana, the tradition of Santa Claus is a “corruption of St. Nicholas, the patron saint of children. Under this name he is especially associated with the giving of presents at the Christmas season” (1959, Vol. 24, p. 278, Santa Claus).

While Christmas is absent from the New Testament, what days of worship are clearly found?

Correct! Wrong!

d. While Christmas is completely absent from the New Testament, there are numerous passages showing that the Messiah and His Apostles observed the Holy Days that were originally ordained by Yahweh in the Old Testament (Mark 14:1; Acts 20:6; 1Cor. 5:8; Acts 2:1-4; Acts 20:16; John 7:2, 10). Observing the days actually in the Bible offers blessings for obedience, while man’s days lack anointing.

Lesson 18 - Christmas: 4,000 Years of Tradition
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Lesson 17 – The Kingdom

Where is the Kingdom of Yahweh? Many believe it is already here in the form of the “church.” Others believe that it has not yet
been established. Let us discover what the Bible means by the “Kingdom” and its significance for the True Worshiper.

The Kingdom is here on earth right now

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b. In His model prayer Yahshua prayed that the Kingdom would come, not “thy kingdom is here.” In speaking to Pilate Yahshua said, “My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence,” John 18:36. Some have misunderstood Luke 17:21: “Neither shall they say, Lo here! Or, lo there! For, behold, the kingdom of Elohim is within you.” Here Yahshua was speaking to His perennial nemesis, the Pharisees, of whom He would never have said the Kingdom is within them (Matt. 5:20). “Within” is the Greek entos and should have been translated among or in the midst of you, as it was translated 115 times elsewhere in the New Testament. Yahshua in their midst was the representative of the Kingdom who will return as King

What will be the capital of the Kingdom?

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c. The capital of the millennial Kingdom will be Jerusalem: “For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of Yahweh from Jerusalem,” Isaiah 2:3. Jeremiah 3:17 says that in the millennium “they shall call Jerusalem the throne of Yahweh; and all the nations shall be gathered unto it, to the name of Yahweh, to Jerusalem: neither shall they walk any more after the imagination of their evil heart.” In Isaiah 60:18 we learn that in the millennial Kingdom that Jerusalem will be called salvation, and that the people will all be righteous and inherit the land forever, verse 21. A new heaven and new earth are described in Isaiah 65:17-25 and 66:22. Ezekiel 37 speaks of a resurrection of dry bones, when the dead will be brought back to life while David as king rules under Yahshua, vv. 24-25. In Matt. 5:3 when Yahshua said, “Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven,” He didn’t say “kingdom in heaven.” The promise is to live and reign on the earth, not in heaven, Rev. 5:10; 2:26, judging the twelve tribes of Israel, Luke 22:29-30.

Who grants Kingdom salvation?

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b. Our salvation is the sole prerogative of Yahweh the Father. Jeremiah 3:23 is plain that in Yahweh Elohim is salvation found. Jonah 2:9 confirms that salvation is from Yahweh. David wrote in Psalm 27:1 that Yahweh is his light and salvation. Psalm 3:8 tells us that salvation belongs to Yahweh. See Psalm 37:39. The Son’s Name Yahshua means, “Yahweh is salvation.”

Salvation is...

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c. Ephesians 2:8 tells us there is nothing we can do to “earn” salvation; it is a gift Yahweh grants those He finds “worthy,” Luke 20:35; 21:36; 2Thess. 1:5; Rev. 3:4. Those who meet this criterion of worthiness walk in good works. Good works are those “which Yahweh had before ordained: for us to walk in, Ephesians 2:10. In other words, keeping His laws that were before commanded renders us worthy as Yahweh’s grace saves us, Heb. 10:36; 2Pet. 1:10-11. Yahshua affirmed this in Matthew 7:21. He also said in Matthew 19:17, “If you will enter into life, keep the commandments.” Although salvation cannot be earned, Yahweh won’t save an unrepentant lawbreaker, Ezek. 18:20; Gal. 5:19-21; 1cor. 6:9; Eph. 5:3-5; 1John 3:15. Sin is the breaking of His laws, 1John 3:4. He rewards each according to his or her deeds, Rom. 2:6-12; 8:4-6; 1Cor. 3:8; Rev. 2:17, 23, 26; 22:12; Isa. 3:10-11; Gal. 6:7-8. Salvation is entirely Yahweh’s, and He judges by the standard of His laws, James 2:12; 1Pet. 1:17.

Upon repentance you...

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d. Paul said in 1Thes. 5:8 that there is a “hope” of salvation. He wasn’t even sure of his own salvation, Philippians 3:11. Hebrews 3:14 says, “We are made partakers of Messiah if we hold the beginning of our confidence steadfast unto the end.” See also Rev. 2:10. Hebrews 6:4-6 says that for those who know but reject the truth that it is impossible to renew them again to repentance. A dreadful end awaits them, 2Pet. 2:20; Heb. 10:26-30; 12:25.

What will the saved do in the Kingdom?

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a. Revelation 5:10 says the saints will make up a kingdom of priests who will reign on the earth (1:6) for a thousand years (20:6) and reign forever (22:5). See also Daniel 7:18; 1Pet. 2:5-9. Those who overcome and keep His works will reign over the nations with a rod of iron under the authority of Yahshua, Rev. 12:5. This rulership was promised in Exodus 19:6. Yahshua will assign each of the Apostles to a kingdom, to judge the 12 tribes of Israel, Luke 22:29-30. Access to New Jerusalem is through one of the tribes of Israel, Rev. 21:12-13. Isaiah 30:20-21 says millennial teachers (the saved) will correct those who stray from Truth.

What happens to those who die without knowledge of the Truth?

Correct! Wrong!

d. Ezekiel 36:36 tells us that the ignorant who live on into the Millennial reign of Yahshua will be given opportunity to learn of Yahweh and repent, as will the dead who were unconverted, rising to physical life in the second resurrection, Ezekiel 37:12-14. Those who reject Him and His laws will be cast into the lake of fire to be destroyed, Rev. 20:11-15. Neither Satan nor any unrepentant sinner will be in the Kingdom, Rev. 21:27.

Yahshua promised the thief on the stake that he would be with Him in the Kingdom that day.

Correct! Wrong!

b. Luke 23:43 has been misconstrued. Yahshua never went to paradise that day, but to the grave for three days and nights. He said in essence, “I’m telling you this day, you shall be with me in paradise.” This Hebrew expression is found in many places like Deuteronomy 4:26 (“this day”). As the Companion Bible shows, “The interpretation of this verse depends entirely on punctuation, which rests wholly on human authority” (Appendix 173). Greek manuscripts had no punctuation until the 9th century, and even then had only dots between words.

Who in the Bible has gone to the Kingdom?

Correct! Wrong!

d. John 3:13 reads, “And no man has ascended up to heaven, but He that came down from heaven, even the Son of Man which is in heaven.” Yahshua said, “Whither I go you cannot come,” John 13:33. Not even David went to heaven, Acts 2:34.

In the Kingdom...

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d. Isaiah 2:3 says of the Kingdom: “And many people shall go and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of Yahweh, to the house of the Elohim of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of Yahweh from Jerusalem. And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people: and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.” See also Daniel 7:27.

Judgment occurs when the Kingdom comes.

Correct! Wrong!

a. “I charge you therefore before Elohim, and Yahshua the Messiah, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom,” 2Tim. 4:1.

The lifestyle in the Kingdom will be agrarian.

Correct! Wrong!

a. See Isa. 61:5; 65:21-22; 66:20.

Lesson 17 - The Kingdom
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Lesson 16 –  True Repentance

A recent survey found that half of all who claim to have been “saved” go back on their conversion within a year. Clearly they did
not understand repentance, let alone when and how salvation is granted. Does true biblical repentance simply mean to be sorry
for sin, or is there much more to this essential act in a Believer’s life?

Can an unrepentant person enter the Kingdom of Yahweh?

Correct! Wrong!

b. Repenting of sin is necessary for salvation. Sin stands in the way of salvation, Isaiah 59:2; 64:7; Luke 13:27. Yahweh will not allow an unrepentant sinner to sit on one of His thrones judging the 12 tribes of Israel (Matt. 19:28). Yahshua instructed in Matthew 18:3, “Except you be converted, and become as little children, you shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.” Conversion or change begins with repentance. Sin leads only to death. James 5:20 explains,, “Let him know, that he which converts the sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins.” In Luke 13:3 Yahshua said, “Except you repent, you shall all likewise perish.”

True repentance means...

Correct! Wrong!

e. Repentance in the New Testament comes from a couple of Greek words: The verb metanoeo means not just to forsake sin but to change one’s entire apprehension regarding it. The noun metanoia means a dynamic change in attitude toward sin itself and its cause—not just its consequences. Constant, deliberate vigilance must be taken to steer clear of all sinful influences and temptations (see Job 31:1). Read Col. 3:1-11 and 2Cor. 7:8-12. Note carefully: It is not simply “sorrow” that leads to repentance, but sorrow that is “righteous,” for there is a sorrow that is “of the world,” Ezekiel 18:21-23, 30-31.

The natural individual automatically resists repentance because

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d. Yahshua said that those who love the world, and specifically its riches, cannot serve Yahweh, Luke 16:13; 1John 2:15. Their hearts are not in harmony with Him, but are in sync with the desires of the natural man, John 15:19. Like oil and water, the two cannot mix, Philippians 3:18-19; James 4:4. And Proverbs 12:14 explains that the ways of the world lead to death.

Repentance is just for those who have committed serious sin.

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b. Acts 17:30 tells us, “And the times of this ignorance Elohim winked at; but now commands all men everywhere to repent.” In Luke 5:32 Yahshua said, “I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.” See also 1John 1:9. Because everyone has sinned, all need to repent and turn from sin, Romans 3:23. Note also that Yahweh has patience for the ignorant, but once they begin to understand the Truth, they must follow His command to repent and change.

What leads to true repentance?

Correct! Wrong!

a. Many claiming to be religious only apologize for their sins at best. Telling Yahweh you are sorry for your sin but not turning away from your sinful behavior is not repentance. Paul reveals the consequences of such: “For righteous sorrow works repentance to salvation not to be repented of: but the sorrow of the world works death,” 2Cor. 7:10. The sincerely repentant man of Yahweh loathes his sins and resolves never to repeat them (see Luke 15:11-32). The prodigal son in Yahshua’s parable truly repented and returned to seek his father’s mercy, ways, and rules. Paul’s “sorrow of the world” terminology is a selfish sorrow of him who is sorry because he got caught or because his actions made him look bad. In contrast, “righteous sorrow” is sorrow directed toward Yahweh. In righteous sorrow one is devastated because one’s sins violated a holy Elohim (Ps. 51:4). Additionally, one is devastated because of the price Yahshua had to pay to remove our sins. In “righteous sorrow” one is more concerned with Yahweh than with self

Genuine repentance results in...

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c. Yahweh promises that all the sins of the truly repentant person will be forgiven and forgotten. “But if the wicked will turn from all his sins that he has committed, and keep all my statutes, and do that which is lawful and right, he shall surely live, he shall not die. All his transgressions that he has committed, they shall not be mentioned unto him: in his righteousness that he has done he shall live. Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked should die? says Yahweh Elohim: and not that he should return from his ways, and live?” (Ezekiel 18:22-23; Acts 3:19).

Yahweh’s offers of mercy accompany His calls to repentance.

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a. Yahweh’s mercy comes with a requirement—our genuine contrition. Joel 2:12-13 is clear that Yahweh has abundant mercy for the truly repentant., “Therefore also now, says Yahweh, turn even to me with all your heart, and with fasting, and with weeping, and with mourning: And rend your heart, and not your garments, and turn unto Yahweh your Elohim: for he is gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and repenteth him of the evil.” Isaiah 55:7 substantiates this, saying, “He will abundantly pardon.” See Jeremiah 3:12-14. True repentance has a wonderfully cleansing and healing effect.

Once we repent, nothing we do afterward has a bearing on our salvation.

Correct! Wrong!

b. Hebrews 4:6 tells us that once one has been enlightened with truth and has received the Holy Spirit, and then falls away (completely rejecting everything), it is impossible to be renewed again unto repentance. This teaching is echoed in 2Peter 2:20. Repentance deals with sins that are past, Romans 3:23-25.

Select the individual(s) who demonstrated true repentance.

Please select 2 correct answers

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c., d. David’s heart-rending confession and his Psalm 51 masterpiece of repentance is a tribute to the person the Bible calls a man after Yahweh’s own heart. David’s sincerity is clear from his immediate and open confession when approached about his sins by Nathan the prophet. He did not shift blame or offer excuses, but just confessed an open honest, “I have sinned.” In Psalm 51 he says his sin was against Yahweh. Paul’s true repentance is evident by the fact that he sought Yahweh’s will once his sins of persecuting believers were dramatically pointed out to him. He fasted for three days, Acts 9:6, then was immersed, 9:18. Contrast this with the “repentance” of King Saul (1Sam 24:16-22); of King Ahab (1Kings 21:25-29), and of Judas (Matt. 27:3-5), where we see a false “sorrow of the world” (2Cor. 7:8-11).

Subsequent actions confirm true repentance.

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a. In Acts 26:20 is the admonishment to turn to Yahweh and do works worthy of repentance. This means a repentant and baptized person is obedient to His laws, including the Sabbath and Feast commands, Prov. 10:8; see also Matthew 3:8. Repentance is followed by a dramatic and permanent change in behavior. In false repentance a person may attempt to turn from sin but not toward Yahweh. In false repentance the sinner is still alive to the world but dead to Messiah (Eph. 2:1-3; 1Jn.2:15-17). The sincere individual puts Yahweh before all things.

Repentance is preparation for

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c. Acts 2:38 says sins are remitted and the Holy Spirit is given upon repentance and immersion. A life in Messiah that looks forward to an everlasting life is what all can have who sincerely repent, Acts 11:18.

A repentant individual (choose all that apply):

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e. The converted believer has a spiritual mind and heart that reflect the character and qualities of Yahweh. Romans 12:2 instructs, “And be not conformed to this world: but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of Elohim.”

Lesson 16 - True Repentance
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Lesson 15 – Hell

Does the Bible teach that a merciful Father in heaven will torture the ignorant or even the rebellious in an eternity of unspeakable
agony — to roast alive forever in horrendous pain from sulfurous flames of hellfire with no possibility of relief and no hope for parole?
Where did this teaching originate and what does the Bible really say about the fate of the wicked?

What was the first lie ever told in the Scriptures?

Correct! Wrong!

c. The first lie recorded in the Bible is Satan’s in Gen. 3:4. Yahweh’s promise of a death penalty for sin took effect after our original parents disobeyed Him — the death process was set in motion and Adam and Eve ultimately died. Before this they had the potential to continue living indefinitely.

Immortal in the Bible refers to man’s soul.

Correct! Wrong!

b. The word immortal occurs only once in Scripture, 1Timothy 1:17, and refers only to Almighty Yahweh (1Tim. 6:16), and which He gave to His Son. “Immortality” must be “put on,” as we naturally lack it, 1Cor. 15:53; Matt. 19:29. Yahshua said those who believe in Him would never die, contrasting with the unbeliever who will die, John 11:26. Nowhere are the words “immortal” and “soul” found together in the Scriptures. The word “immortality” is found in three other passages and refers either to Yahweh Himself or to a state man must seek, not a condition he already possesses (Rom. 2:7; 1Cor. 15:54; 2Tim. 1:10). Soul derives from the Hebrew nephesh and means the living, breathing being. Yahweh says the soul that sins shall die, Ezek. 18:20.

Death means...

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d. “Death” and “die” derive from the Hebrew muwth and mean to die, kill, have one executed. No nuance of muwth means to continue living, to exist in some other form, or to retain conscious awareness. The Scriptures sometimes talk of death as a sleep, as in John 11:11-14 where Yahshua raised the “sleeping” Lazarus from the dead. Also Dan. 12:2; 1Thess. 4:13-16. In sleep one is unaware of anything. The same is true of death and the Bible makes no distinction between the good and bad individual—both sleep in death, 2Kings 21:17-18; Psalm 146:4; Dan. 12:3; John 11:11; 1Thes. 4:13-16. All sleep in the grave, Deut. 31:16; Psalm 9:17; 139:8; John 5:28-29; Acts 2:34; Heb. 9:27; Revelation 20:13. The resurrection is of those asleep in graves, not those alive in heaven or hell, Hosea 13:14; 1Cor. 15:51-52.

Hell is an underground of Satan where white-hot flames from sulfurous rocks horrifically torture sinners forever.

Correct! Wrong!

b. The universal concept of hell is a mixture of misconstrued Scriptures, Teutonic mythology, and pagan Greek belief about immortality. Helping to formulate the modern notion of hell was Dante Alighieri’s 13th century epic poem, The Divine Comedy, in which Dante advances Teutonic legends of hell as a place where the damned suffer endlessly in a variety of ways. The actual root of our word hell is kel, meaning to cover, conceal, save. From kel came Hel, an Old Norse name of the underworld goddess of the dead who was in charge of torture and punishment. She was the daughter of Loki, an evil god of fire. The belief that hell is a place of fiery torture was strengthened by the Hebrew Gehenna, which was the name of a valley (Ge-hinnom) near Jerusalem where apostate Israel once sacrificed children to the Canaanite sun god Moloch (1Ki. 11:7) and later where city garbage was incinerated. Translators rendered Gehenna “hell” in the KJV and others. Thus the idea of burning flames became associated with notions about eternal torture in hellfire. In fact, Gehenna is the ultimate punishment of total annihilation of the wicked and is the lake of fire spoken of in Rev. 20. Hell, on the other hand, is simply a concealed place, a covered pit or grave. The stomach of the great fish that swallowed Jonah is even called hell (sheol), Jonah 2:2.

The four Hebrew and Greek words translated hell are:

Correct! Wrong!

a. Translators did a great disservice by using one word— hell—for three different biblical concepts. The word translated hell in the Old Testament is the Hebrew sheol and means pit or grave. In the King James it is translated grave 31 times, hell 31 times, and pit 3 times. The Greek word from which hell is derived in the New Testament is hades, which has the same meaning as sheol. The other words translated hell are gehenna (see question 4) and tartaroo, a term found only once, 2Pet. 2:4, and means a place of restraint for fallen angels. None of these words refers to a place or condition of eternal, torturous agony for wicked humans. In the grave (hell) all awareness ceases: “There is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave [sheol] whither you go,” Eccl. 9:10.

The lake of fire spoken of in Revelation 19:20; 20:10, 14, 15, and 21:8 is...

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d. The lake of fire is called the second death. Into it the beast and his worshipers (Rev. 14:9) and the false prophet will be thrown, Rev. 19:20, and Satan as well, Rev. 20:10, 15. Others sharing this fate will be the lawless who are not written in the book of life, Rev. 20:14, a description of whom is found in Rev. 21:8. The word “tormented” in Rev. 20:10 (Gk. Basanizo) is linked to the Greek marturion in Luke 9:5, according to Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament. Marturion means testimony or witness. The smoke of their destruction rises forever as a permanent witness to their rebellion against Yahweh. Those thrown into the lake of fire are destroyed, 2Thes. 1:8-9 (“everlasting destruction”); the wicked are reduced to ashes, Mal 4:1-3 (wicked will be “stubble,” “burned up,” “ashes”). Psalm 37:20 says, “But the wicked shall perish, and the enemies of Yahweh shall be as the fat of lambs: they shall consume; into smoke shall they consume away.” The fat refers to the fat that was completely consumed by fire on the sacrificial altar.

Yahshua’s account of Lazarus and the rich man proves that eternal suffering in flames is the destiny of the wicked.

Correct! Wrong!

b. This parable in Luke 16 is employed to teach a greater lesson and therefore is symbolic in meaning: that the arrogant and selfish rich man (i.e. Pharisees) was aghast to realize he had missed out on the first resurrection. From his dry mouth we see his distress. If he were engulfed in hellfire he would beg for a lot more water than a wetted fingertip to cool his tongue! “Tormented” is the Greek odunamai and means grief, sorrow, distress. “Flame” derives from phlox which refers to a flame’s brightness or flash, not the fire itself (which would be puros). His past life is now revealed in the light (phlox) of truth. The “gulf between” refers to his rejection from the kingdom (Pharisees had no promise of everlasting life, Matt. 5:20). He asks (figuratively) that Abraham, who is dead (Heb. 11:13) send Lazarus “from the dead” to warn his five brothers to repent. Far from teaching eternal hellfire, Yahshua was warning the Jewish leadership who lived the high life and disdained others not to shut out the Gentiles from truth by their actions and traditions, as they themselves were shut out.

Other biblical references to everlasting fire show that hellfire will endlessly torture the wicked.

Correct! Wrong!

b. Passages like Matt.18:8 and 25:41 are understood in the context of Isa. 33:12 and 14, showing that the wicked will be destroyed by fire, not just tortured. In Matt. 18:8-9 everlasting fire and hellfire refer to gehenna fire that will completely consume. Matt. 25:41 shows that everlasting fire is prepared for the devil and his angels, which will be a fire that destroys them, Ezek. 28:18; Mal. 4:1; Heb. 2:14; Rom. 16:20 (where bruise means to utterly crush). Matt. 25:46 refers to everlasting punishment, not punishing, and is the Greek kolasis meaning a cutting off. (Notice the wicked “go away” into everlasting punishment.) In Jude 1:7 we learn that Sodom and Gomorrah also suffered the vengeance of “eternal fire,” but they are not still burning today. It is the results that are eternal, not the fire (in Matt. 25:41, 46 everlasting means enduring. TCNT). When the Bible speaks of an “unquenchable” fire it means a fire that will not be extinguished before it consumes what it burns. In Jer. 17:27 Yahweh promises that unless Israel obeys Him, the palaces of Jerusalem shall be destroyed with a fire that “shall not be quenched.” This was fulfilled in Jer. 52:13, when all the homes were destroyed in fire. Yet that fire is not still burning. An unquenchable fire will also completely burn up the wicked, Mal. 4:1.

Lesson 15 - Hell
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Lesson 14 – Salvation

Salvation is the goal of every True Worshiper. Some believe it is automatically and permanently secured once one repents and turns from sin. Others say that it is all of Yahshua’s doing and requires nothing of us. Let’s discover the biblical answers.

Who determines man’s salvation?

Correct! Wrong!

b. Numerous Scriptures in both Old and New Testament attest that human salvation is the sole prerogative of Yahweh the Father. Jeremiah 3:23 is plain that in Yahweh Elohim is salvation. Jonah 2:9 confirms that salvation is from Yahweh. David wrote in Psalm 27:1 that Yahweh is his light and salvation. Psalm 3:8 tells us that salvation belongs to Yahweh, a statement virtually repeated in Psalm 37:39. The Son’s Name Yahshua means “Yahweh is salvation.” Near the end of the Bible it was revealed to John that the heavenly hosts cry out that salvation is of the Father Yahweh, Rev. 19:1.

Salvation is missing in the Old Testament, existing only in the New Testament.

Correct! Wrong!

b. In Isaiah 59:1 the prophet says Yahweh saves. His arm brings salvation (59:16) and He wears a helmet of salvation, v. 17. A Redeemer is promised in verse 20 for those who turn from lawbreaking. In chapter 60 we learn of the Millennial Kingdom and how Jerusalem will be called salvation, verse 18, and how the people will all be righteous and inherit the land forever, verse 21. A new heaven and new earth are described in Isaiah 65:17-25 and 66:22. The righteous will be resurrected to life, according to Daniel 12:2. Ezekiel 37 speaks of a resurrection of dry bones, when the dead will be brought back to life when David rules, vv. 24-25.

Salvation is...

Correct! Wrong!

a. Ephesians 2:8 tells us there is nothing we can do to “earn” our salvation; it is a gift Yahweh grants those He finds “worthy,” Luke 20:35; 21:36; 2Thessalonians 1:5; Revelation 3:4. Those who meet this criterion of worthiness walk in good works. Good works are those “which Yahweh had before ordained” for us to walk in, Ephesians 2:10. In other words, keeping His laws that were before commanded renders us worthy and Yahweh’s grace then saves us, Heb. 10:36; 2 Pet. 1:10-11. Yahshua affirmed this in Matthew 7:21. He also said in Matthew 19:17, “If you will enter into life, keep the commandments.” Although we cannot earn salvation by good works, Yahweh won’t save an unrepentant lawbreaker, Ezek. 18:20; Gal. 5:19-21; 1Cor. 6:9; Eph. 5:3-5; 1John 3:15. Sin is the breaking of His laws, 1John 3:4. He rewards each according to his or her deeds, Romans 2:6-12; 8:4-6; 1Cor. 3:8; Rev. 2:17, 23, 26; 22:12; Isa. 3:10-11; Gal. 6:7-8. Salvation is entirely Yahweh’s, and He goes by the standard of His laws in His judgments for salvation, James 2:12; 1Pet. 1:17.

The qualifications necessary for salvation include:

Correct! Wrong!

c. Beginning back in the Old Testament we learn that repentance and obedience are key to salvation, Neh. 1:9; Ezek. 18:27-30. Repentance is critical to salvation in the New Testament as well, Luke 13:3; Acts 3:19; 11:18; Rom. 10:13; 1Cor. 6:11; 2Cor. 7:10. Obedience includes giving up the ways of the world: “Wherefore come out from among then, and be separate, says Yahweh, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you,” 2Cor. 6:17. Paul wrote in Philippians 2:12 to “work out your own salvation with fear and trembling.” Obeying Scripture is how we “work out” our salvation: “Take heed unto yourself, and unto the doctrine; continue in them: for in doing this you shall both save yourself, and them that hear you,” 1Tim. 4:16. Overcoming sin through obeying Yahweh’s laws will make us the rightful candidates for salvation, Rev. 22:14; 3:21; John 3:16 with 5:46-47 reveals true belief tied to the law.

You are saved...

Correct! Wrong!

b. Unless Yahshua resurrects the dead, they have no future. The reward of everlasting life to the just comes at the resurrection (Luke 14:14, at Yahshua’s return (Matt. 16:27; 1Cor. 5:5; 1Thess. 4:16-17; Heb. 9:28; Isa. 40:10-11).

Upon conversion you are forever saved.

Correct! Wrong!

b. Paul said in 1 Thess. 5:8 that there is a “hope” of salvation. He wasn’t even sure of his own salvation, Philippians 3:11. Hebrews 3:14 says, “We are made partakers of Messiah if we hold the beginning of our confidence steadfast unto the end.” Also Rev. 2:10. Hebrews 6:4-6 says that for those who know but reject the truth it is impossible to renew them again to repentance. A dreadful end awaits, 2Pet. 2:20; Heb. 10:26-30; 12:25.

Justification is not the same as sanctification.

Correct! Wrong!

a. Justification means declaring to be just or righteous, just as if you had not sinned. It is achieved through our faith (Rom. 3:28) by Yahweh’s grace (Rom. 3:24) at conversion (Acts 3:19) for sins that are past (Rom. 3:25). Sanctification means consecration, or setting apart from the world for a special purpose, and is done by obedience to Yahweh, John 17:17; Romans 3:31.

The Name of the Son is in what way linked to salvation?

Correct! Wrong!

d. “Yah” is the short, poetic form of Yahweh’s Name, and “shua” (shortened from the Hebrew hoshea) means to save: “Yahweh saves” or “Yahweh is salvation.”

What will the saved do once resurrected?

Correct! Wrong!

a. Revelation 5:10 says the saints will be a kingdom ofpriests who will reign on the earth (1:6) for a thousand years (20:6) and then forever (22:5). See also Dan. 7:18 and 1Pet. 2:5-9. Those who overcome and keep His works will reign over the nations with a rod of iron under the authority of Yahshua, Rev. 12:5. This rulership was promised in Exodus 19:6. Yahshua will assign each of the apostles to a kingdom to judge the 12 tribes of Israel, Luke 22:29-30. Access to New Jerusalem is through one of the tribes of Israel, Rev. 21:12-13. Isaiah 30:20-21 says Millennial teachers (the saved) will correct those who stray from Truth.

What happens to those who die without knowledge of the Truth?

Correct! Wrong!

d. Ezekiel 36:36 tells us that the heathen who live on intothe Millennial reign of Yahshua will be given a chance to learn of Yahweh, as will the dead who were ignorant of Him, rising to physical life in the resurrection, Ezekiel 37:12-14. Those who reject Him and His laws will be cast into the lake of fire to be destroyed, Rev. 20:11-15. Neither Satan nor any unrepentant sinner will exist in the Kingdom, Rev. 21:27

The thief on the stake was promised he would be with Yahshua in paradise that very day.

Correct! Wrong!

b. Luke 23:43 has been misconstrued. Yahshua never went to paradise that same day, but to the grave for three days and nights. He said in essence, “I’m telling you this day, you shall be with me in paradise.” This Hebrew expression is found in many places like Deuteronomy 4:26 (“this day”). As the Companion Bible says (App. 173), “The interpretation of this verse depends entirely on punctuation, which rests wholly on human authority.” Greek manuscripts had no punctuation until the 9th century, and then had only dots between Greek words.

Who in the Bible went to heaven?

Correct! Wrong!

a. John 3:13 reads, “And no man has ascended up to heaven, but He that came down from heaven, even the Son of Man which is in heaven.” Yahshua said, “Whither I go you cannot come,” John 13:33. Not even David went to heaven, Acts 2:34.

Lesson 14 - Salvation
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Lesson 13 – Death and Resurrection

The biggest questions of life are: Why are we here? and What follows death? Many traditions have developed over the centuries about the nature of death and the heareafter. Most of them are based in mythology. In this study we will examine death and the resurrection from the only standpoint that matters — what Yahweh’s Word tell us is true.

Man was created with a soul that never dies.

Correct! Wrong!

b. Nowhere does the Bible say that man has an immortal soul. Satan’s lie, the first lie ever told, was that Eve “would not surely die,” Genesis 3:4. The immortal soul idea is rooted in ancient pagan beliefs. The Jewish Encyclopedia notes that a soul that lives on after death is “nowhere expressly taught in Scripture...The belief in the immortality of the soul came to the Jews from contact with Greek thought and chiefly through the philosophy of Plato, its principal exponent, who was led to it through Orphic and Eleusian mysteries in which Babylonian and Egyptian views were strangely blended,” Vol. VI, pp 564, 566. “From early Old Testament times, the Israelites believed that the body and soul were one, and that death brought the death of the entire ‘self’” (Nelson’s Illus. Ency. of the Bible, p. 164).

Who of the following never died?

Correct! Wrong!

g. Romans 5:12 reads, “Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.” (See 1Cor. 15:22; Gal. 3:22.) Psalm 89:48 asks, “What man is he that liveth, and shall not see death? Shall he deliver his soul from the hand of the grave?” Hebrews 9:27 tells us that it is appointed unto men once to die, and then the judgment. No one on earth has escaped death, not even Yahshua (John 19:33; 2Cor. 5:14-15), who was the death penalty sacrifice for our sins. Because the wages of sin is death, if He never died as required by His sin sacrifice, then our sins remain unpaid, 1Cor. 15:13-14. Enoch died after 365 years, Heb. 11:5, 13, and EliYah was back writing letters after his trip in the whirlwind, 2Chron. 21:12—both mortals.

When we die....

Correct! Wrong!

b. Ecclesiastes 9:5 and 10 say “the dead know not anything.” All awareness and thought processes stop at death, Psalm 6:5; 146:4. The dead are unconscious and oblivious to what’s around them, in what the Bibles compares to as a sleep (John 11:11-14; 1Cor. 11:30; 15:6, 18, 26, 51; 2Pet. 3:4; 1Thes. 4:13-14).

The terms “soul” and “spirit” mean the same thing.

Correct! Wrong!

b. “Soul” in Hebrew is nephesh (Greek psuche), meaning a living, breathing creature. It is translated “soul” when used of humans, and “creature” when used of animals. It is the physical life we have as living beings on earth. When breath of life was breathed into Adam he became a living soul (not an “immortal” soul), Gen. 2:7. Man’s soul is subject to death, Gen. 2:17; Ezek. 18:4, 20. The soul of man is like the soul of beasts, Eccl. 3:19, all of which die, v. 20. “Spirit” (Hebrew ruach, Greek pneuma) resides in man, 1Cor. 2:11, given by Yahweh when we came into being, Zech. 12:1. In conjunction with the brain, this spirit forms the human mind, 1 Cor. 2:11. It gives us our intellectual and emotional traits and separates us from mere animals. Our spirit engenders individually unique characteristics, making us who we are. Ecclesiastes 12:7 says that this spirit, and not an immortal soul, is what is taken back to Yahweh at our death, Ps. 104:29.

Yahshua used the story of Lazarus and the rich man to show...

Correct! Wrong!

d. This parable given by Yahshua is filled with allegory. It is not meant to teach literal facts surrounding death but is an object lesson to show the difference between those who humbly accept the Truth and are blessed for it (Lazarus) and those who are callously arrogant, selfish, self-justified and exclusivist (meaning the Pharisees), Luke 16:14-31.

Innate immortality is ascribed in the Bible to...

Correct! Wrong!

a. Only Yahweh has innate immortality, 1Tim. 6:16, and He raised up His Son with the power of His Spirit and gave Him immortality, Rom. 8:11. His Son at the resurrection will in turn grant this power of everlasting life to those who have proven faithful, Matt. 19:29; 1Cor. 15:52-54; Rom. 6:23; 1Thess 4:16.

To be resurrected to life...

Correct! Wrong!

b. Romans 8:11 reads, “But if the Spirit of him that raised up Yahshua from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Messiah from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you.” See Rom. 8:23.

What is the purpose of a resurrection?

Correct! Wrong!

a. Some believe that the resurrection is for the purpose of reuniting soul and body. But as we have seen, the soul does not go flying away at death but rather dies with the body.

How many resurrections are in Scripture?

Correct! Wrong!

b. The first resurrection is of those who hear the Truth now and obediently follow it. These righteous, both living and dead, are raised at the return of Yahshua when the trumpet is blown, Matt. 24:31; 1Thess 4:16-17. They will become spirit beings and will live forever in the Kingdom, 1Cor. 15:51-52. The second resurrection is to physical life and comes after the thousand-year reign of Yahshua. It is made up of those who never learned of the Truth but who will have that opportunity in the Millennium, Rev. 20, and who will then be judged by their works, v. 12.

Yahshua was the first and only one to rise from the dead.

Correct! Wrong!

a. Having died, Yahshua is the first to live again. He is called the “firstfruits of them who slept [died],” 1Cor. 15:20- 23. Col. 1:18 says He is the Firstborn from the dead. All the patriarchs who preceded Him in death are still in their graves waiting fro the resurrection and their reward, Heb. 11:13.

Yahshua will secretly return and rapture the saints safely away to heaven...

Correct! Wrong!

d. Yahweh promises protection on earth for His Assembly, Rev. 12:14, not a rapture away to heaven to watch in safety as friends and relatives suffer unspeakably in the tribulation. Noah and his family were protected on earth, in the ark, while Israle was protected in Goshen during the plagues on Egypt. (See our booklet, Is There a Coming Rapture? Prepare to be surprised!)

Judgment occurs...

Correct! Wrong!

d. Those who rise in the first resurrection at Yahshua’s return are said to forever be with the Messiah, 1Thess. 4:17. Clearly they have already been judged by their lives now and been found worthy, Rev. 20:6. Paul in Romans 2 says that a righteous judgment will reward everyone according to their deeds. Yahshua is the Judge, John 5:22, and the Word is the standard by which we are judged, Psalm 96:13. Those who are ignorant of the Truth will be given an opportunity to learn the Truth and then accept or reject it at the white throne judgment following the Millennium, Rev. 20:12.

The last to be destroyed after the final judgment will be

Correct! Wrong!

a. In 1Cor. 15:25-26 Paul writes, “For He must reign, till He has put all enemies under His feet. The last enemy to be destroyed is death.” This prophecy waits fulfillment as spoken in Rev. 20:14., “And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.” “Hell” is the Greek hades and means the grave. All of this is in preparation for the new Jerusalem to come down from heaven, which will be inhabited by Yahweh Himself, Rev. 21:3

Lesson 13 - Death and Resurrection
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Lesson 12 – Baptism

If you have ever wondered about paintings depicting John the Baptist and Yahshua standing ankle-deep in the river while John with cupped hands dribbles water on the Messiah’s head, you had good reason to question traditions about baptism. The institution of baptism has been misunderstood for centuries, yet, it is essential to one’s salvation. Join us as we look not only at how baptism should be done, but also on whom it is to be performed scripturally as well as the reason that Scripture commands that a believer be baptized.

A baptism was practiced by Israel in the Old Testament

Correct! Wrong!

a. A form of baptism was practiced by Israel in the Old Testament (2Kings 5:14); however, this baptism was not a baptism of the Holy Spirit (Yahshua’s baptism) or of repentance (John’s baptism), but a baptism of purification. There is evidence that the Jews practiced a form of baptism long after the birth of the Messiah. For more on historical baptism, see “Baptism,” Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature (CBTEL

Proper baptism is allowed only once.

Correct! Wrong!

a. Ephesians 4:5 says there is only one Master, one faith, and one baptism. According to the author of Hebrews it is impossible to be renewed spiritually through repentance once one has been “enlightened” through repentance and baptism but later comes to reject the Truth (Heb. 6:4-6).

Circumcision is accomplished spiritually today through baptism.

Correct! Wrong!

a. In the Old Testament physical circumcision was the confirmation of the Abrahamic covenant (Gen. 17:10-11). Upon Yahshua’s impalement came a change in the Old Testament covenant (Heb. 9:1-22). One change included circumcision. According to the Apostle Paul physical circumcision is no longer a requirement for salvation (Gal. 5:6; 1Cor. 7:19) as with the Abrahamic covenant. Circumcision today is spiritual, and is now accomplished through Yahshua’s baptism (Col. 2:11-12).

What is the scriptural age for baptism?

Correct! Wrong!

c. The proper age of baptism is 20 years or older. Before baptism repentance is necessary (Acts 2:38). Repentance requires an understanding of Yahweh’s Word. Without this discernment repentance is impossible. Therefore, baptism preceded by repentance requires that person be mature in thinking and understanding. The Bible indicates this age of accountability is 20. It was at 20 that people had to begin giving the atonement offering (Ex. 30:14), and men in Israel were numbered for war (Num. 1:3; 26:2). At 20 the Levite men enrolled in temple service, 1Chron. 23:24, and oversaw temple work, Ezra 3:8. And it was those who were 20 years and older who could not enter the Promised Land but who had to die in the wilderness for their sins (Num. 14:29; 32:11), thus showing that 20 is the age when Yahweh holds a person responsible for his or her actions.

At what age was Yahshua baptized?

Correct! Wrong!

d. According to Mark 1:9-11, Yahshua was baptized by John the Baptist at the beginning of His ministry, which Yahshua began at age 30 (Luke 3:23). Following Yahshua’s example, Yahweh’s Restoration Ministry maintains that a person should be at least 30 years of age to qualify for ordination to the office of elder.

Who in the New Testament was given the authority to baptize?

Correct! Wrong!

d. In the New Testament baptism into Yahshua’s Name was carried out only by ordained ministers (John 4:1-2; Acts 16:33). No scriptural examples show a layperson performing immersions. Also, from Acts 8:4-17 it is evident that while deacons have the authority to baptize, they lack the authority to lay on hands; only an elder has this authority (1Tim. 4:14)

In the New Testament the word “baptize” is derived from the Greek word “baptizo,” which means to .

Correct! Wrong!

a. Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance defines baptizo as, “to make overwhelmed, i.e. cover wholly with a fluid.” The Complete Word Study New Testament defines baptize as “to immerse, submerge for a religious purpose…” The New International Dictionary of the Bible offers this insightful statement: “Immersion, however, depicts more clearly the symbolic aspect of baptism since its three steps—immersion (going into the water), submersion (going under the water), and emersion (coming out of the water)—more closely parallel the concept of entering into the death of [Messiah], experiencing the forgiveness of sins, and rising to walk in the newness of [Messiah’s] resurrected life (Rom. 6:4).” In addition, according to many biblical scholars immersion was the original form of baptism practiced by the apostles and early Assembly. “...Immersion was the only practice of the apostles and the first Christians, and the church in general for many ages, and that it was only laid aside from the love of novelty and the coldness of climate” (Baptism,” CBTEL). The words springkle (Gr. Rhantizo and pour (Gr. Cheo) are never used in the context of baptism.

What is required before baptism?

Correct! Wrong!

b. Repentance from a person’s past sins is likely the most important aspect of true baptism. Before 3,000 were baptized in Acts 2, Peter called for repentance from the people (Acts 2:38). Before a person is baptized and receives the gift of Yahweh’s Spirit, that person first must repent of past sins and turn toward a righteous way of life. Repentance is more than words. True repentance is nothing short of self-denial and a complete rejection of all that Yahweh considers sinful and wicked

Baptism is to be done in what name(s)?

Correct! Wrong!

c. Every New Testament account of baptism was performed in Yahshua’s Name (Acts 2:38; 8:15-16; 10:48; 19:5; 22:16; Rom. 6:3; Gal. 3:27). Matthew 28:19, which is the only verse giving a triune formula, is suspect. The Hebrew version of Matthew omits it, while the Jerusalem Bible questions its inspiration. One simple reason for this is that a trinity formula was never followed in Scripture! “To some perplexity, and even distress, is caused by the apparent neglect of the disciples to carry out the [Master’s] command in Matthew 28:19, 20, with regard to the formula for baptism...Turning to Acts and onwards, they find no single instance of, or reference to, baptism in which the Triune name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is employed. On the contrary, from the very first, only ten days after the inunction had been given, Peter is found (Acts 2:38) commanding all his hearers including those of the dispersion to be baptized in the name of [Yahshua the Messiah]” (Companion Bible, Appendix 185). Further, a number of early “church fathers” and historians were apparently without the knowledge of the trinity form in Matthew 28:19, including Eusebius of Caesarea and Justin Martyr (Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics). (For more information on the Trinity request our free booklet, Identifying the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.)

John’s baptism was of what type?

Correct! Wrong!

c. John’s baptism was one of repentance (Mark 1:4), but not of Yahweh’s Spirit (Luke 3:15-17). Yahweh’s Restoration Ministry considers most other baptisms, baptisms of repentance. Those who are baptized into the triune formula or other form may have been baptized into repentance, but not with Yahweh’s Spirit (Acts 2:38). Those who have not been immersed properly—into Yahshua’s Name—need to do so (Acts 19:1-6).

The act of baptism is a symbolic depiction of __________.

Correct! Wrong!

b. The act of baptism is a symbolic depiction of Yahshua’s death (Rom. 6:3-4). When a person is baptized or immersed into Yahshua’s Name he takes part in Yahshua’s death, burial, and ultimately His resurrection (Gal. 3:27).

Baptism is a requirement for _________.

Correct! Wrong!

a. Yahshua said that baptism was a requirement for the Kingdom. “...Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of Elohim” (John 3:5, KJV). Being born of water occurs at baptism. At baptism we are washed clean of our past sins and receive the earnest or “down payment” of Yahweh’s Spirit with the laying on of hands. The immersed person has an obligation to nurture and cultivate the Spirit, thus allowing it to grow within. The second process, being fully born of the Spirit, occurs when a person is changed to a spirit being at Yahshua’s return (1Cor. 15:23; 1 Thess. 4:16-17).

Lesson 12 - Baptism
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Lesson 11 – The Bible’s Calendar

The sun and the moon are used for signs, seasons, days, and years.

Correct! Wrong!

A. According to Genesis 1:14 these heavenly luminaries are used for signs, seasons, days, and years, and so both sun and moon play a part in Yahweh’s biblical calendar. It’s important to note that the word “seasons” found in Genesis 1:14 is from the Hebrew word moed, which literally means “appointed time,” referring to the annual Holy Days for Yahweh’s people (Lev. 23). Psalm 104:19 tells us, “He appointed the moon for seasons” (moedim—festivals)

The scriptural calendar is a solar calendar.

Correct! Wrong!

B. Unlike the sun-based Gregorian calendar in use today, the scriptural calendar is lunar-based. The biblical calendar is set by observation of the visible new moon (Ex. 12:2; Deut. 16:1). Our word “month” derives from “moon” and yet our modern calendar completely ignores the moon in setting the month. The lunar year of 12 months (354 days) is approximately 11 days shorter than the solar year (365 1/4 days). Unlike today, the lunar calendar was the standard for ancient people (Oxford English Dictionary, “month”

What is the Hebrew word for month?

Correct! Wrong!

A. Chodesh, the Hebrew word for month, literally means “new moon.” It derives from chadash, “to be new.” Grammatically it’s the causative of “rebuild.” The biblical new moon is a new, thin crescent in the initial stages of being rebuilt. Following the conjunction, as the moon moves away from a direct line between earth and sun, it first appears as a thin crescent. To be visible a crescent must be at least 18 hours past the point of conjunction.

According to Yahweh’s Word, what qualifies as the new moon?

Correct! Wrong!

C. The scriptural new moon is the first crescent of the moon that can be observed with the unaided eye. Using the first visible crescent of the moon to start the month was the biblical practice from Abraham to Yahshua. The Jews later dropped this method when Hillel II introduced a calculated calendar, and the Jews began using the conjunction or astronomical new moon to begin the month. (“Calendar,” Encyclopedia Judaica). This practice poses two problems: a concealed moon fails to fit the biblical criteria for the start of a month, as the rebuilding of the moon has not even begun while the moon is completely dark. Second, we are commanded to “observe the new moon,” Deuteronomy 16:1, where “observe” (shamar) includes the meaning of “look narrowly at, mark, watch.” How can one watch for or mark something that cannot be seen? Furthermore, the conjunction moon in the Middle East can go unseen from 1.5 to 3.5 days. A conjunction-based calendar presents the problem of which of these concealed-moon days begins the month

The scriptural day begins at what time?

Correct! Wrong!

B. The scriptural day starts and ends at sunset, as we see from creation (Gen. 1:5). The word evening as found in Genesis 1:5 is from the Hebrew word ereb, which is sunset. Therefore, the scriptural day begins at sunset and extends through the daylight hours to end at sunset. For further proof that sunset begins the day, see Lev. 23:32; Deut. 16:6; Ex. 12:18.

The first month of the biblical calendar includes the verification of what?

Correct! Wrong!

A. The first month of the biblical year is Abib. Abib, meaning “young ears of grain,” describes Mideast barley found in a certain stage of development during this month. Barley in the Middle East is a winter crop, which begins to turn green about spring. Technically the vernal equinox starts spring, which may not always correspond to Abib. While the vernal equinox can be used as an indicator it cannot be used scripturally to mark Abib and there is no mention of the vernal equinox in the Word. Once the grain is in the Abib stage the new moon of that month in which it occurs marks the beginning of the first month. For barley to be considered Abib, it must have young, green ears of grain, it must be brittle enough to be destroyed by a hailstorm and be ready for harvest in 2-3 weeks (Ex. 9:31; Lev. 23:14; Deut. 6:9).

Which scriptural months are mentioned in the Bible prior the Babylonian Exile?

Correct! Wrong!

C. Only four months of the scriptural calendar were given names prior to the Babylonian exile, each hinging on agriculture: Abib (Ex. 13:4; 23:15: 34:18; Deut. 16:1). Ziv, spring flowers (1Kings 6:1, 37). Ethanim, perennial (1Kings 8:2). Bul, rain (1Kings 6:38).

The scriptural calendar averages how many days per month

Correct! Wrong!

B. Being lunar, the scriptural calendar averages 29 days, 12 hours, and 44 minutes per month (Judaica).

The scriptural calendar uses the vernal equinox to establish the first month.

Correct! Wrong!

B. Some claim that the term for equinox is the Hebrew tequphah, No. 8622 in Strong’s. Strong’s defines tequphah as: “From 5362; a revolution, i.e. (of the sun) course (of time) lapse:-circuit, come about, end.” It appears in Ex. 34:22; 1 Sam. 1:20; 1Kings 20:22, 26; 2Chron. 24:23; 36:10; and Ps. 19:6. Nowhere in these passages does tequphah point to the vernal equinox. In Exodus 23:16 it refers to the end of the year at the Feast of Tabernacles, not to the spring at Passover time.

The scriptural calendar consists of how many months?

Correct! Wrong!

D. The Bible never attributes a certain number of days or months to the scriptural year. However, knowing that the scriptural calendar is based on lunar observation that begins with the verification of the barley, one can determine that the biblical year consists of 12 or 13 lunar months.

How does the Jewish calendar differ from the biblical calendar?

Correct! Wrong!

D. The biblical calendar does not use postponements (dehioth) or the conjunction as does the Jewish calendar. Both of these practices are foreign to the Bible. According to the man-made postponements of the Jewish calendar, Atonement and Trumpets cannot fall on Friday or Sunday because that would place two Sabbaths in succession. In addition, Passover can fall only on Monday, Wednesday, Friday, or Sabbath. Other rules of the Jewish calendar cannot be substantiated in the Bible, including beginning the year with the Feast of Trumpets in the fall (Rosh Hoshanah means “head” or “first of the year” when scripturally it is the seventh month). Scripture says that Abib, in the spring and month of Passover, is the beginning of the year, not Trumpets in the fall, Exodus 12:2, 6. The Jewish calendar also goes by calculated lunar conjunctions, not by the visible new moons as is commanded in Scripture. If we are off in the observance of a Feast by even one day we are not obedient to Yahweh. The punishment is to be “cut off” from Yahweh’s people, Leviticus 23:29.

What calendar did Yahshua the Messiah use during His ministry?

Correct! Wrong!

B. From all evidence, Yahshua used only the scriptural calendar during His ministry. During His life there were at least two, and perhaps more, conflicting Jewish calendar systems at work. One Jewish sect in particular, the Essenes, calculated the calendar from solar observation. The Sadducees and Pharisees used a lunar calendar; however, both varied from each other. Yahshua followed the calendar observed by the Sadducees. This can be verified in Yahshua’s observance of the new moon crescent and the 14th Passover. During Yahshua’s ministry the Sanhedrin, which was governed by the Pharisees, verified the beginning of each month by the new moon crescent, not by the conjunction. Many of the rules of the Jewish calendar were established by Hillel II sometime around the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I (379—395 CE). Not until the 9th century did the Jews completely abandon setting the calendar by the visible new moons in favor of the calculated conjunction of the modern Jewish calendar.

Lesson 11 — The Bible’s Calendar
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Lesson 10 — Feast of Tabernacles

Tabernacles, as well as the other Feasts and Sabbaths, points the way to salvation. Those who do not keep Yahweh’s moedim do not really know Him. When an apostate Israel repented and returned to Yahweh, they immediately went back to keeping His Holy Days, Nehemiah 8:2, 14, 18. Obeying Him brings us closer to Him and results in His blessings, Deuteronomy 28:1-14. Obey your Father—and be blessed accordingly!

The Feast of Tabernacles is a commanded assembly, whether we wish to assemble or not.

Correct! Wrong!

a. Yahweh commands us in Exodus 23:15-17 to gather at three times (pa’am—seasons) of the year: for the Feast of Unleavened Bread, Pentecost, and Tabernacles. See also Exodus 34:22-23. During Tabernacles we are directed to rejoice, Deuteronomy 16:14-15. As we will see, Tabernacles pictures a soon-coming time when people everywhere will be forced to obey Yahweh and as a consequence will find joy.

For seven complete days during the Feast of Tabernacles Yahweh directs His people to live in temporary dwellings.

Correct! Wrong!

a. We are commanded to dwell in booths or temporary dwellings for seven complete days during the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:42). The word booth is from the Hebrew word sukkah, which means a “temporary shelter.” Anciently these booths were constructed with boughs of olive, palm, pine, myrtle, and trees of thick foliage. The sukkah represents the dwelling used by the Israelites during their wilderness journey (Lev. 23:43).

The Feast of Tabernacles portrays the summer wheat harvest.

Correct! Wrong!

b. Also known as ingathering, Tabernacles concludes the general fall harvest, often called the fruit harvest. At the end of September grapes, figs, and other fruits are harvested and wines, raisins, and molasses are produced from the harvest.

The Last Great Day is technically a Feast in its own right and is separate from the Feast of Tabernacles.

Correct! Wrong!

a. The Last Great Day is technically separate from the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:34-36). The Last Great Day concludes the annual feasts for the biblical year. Servile work, buying, and selling are prohibited on the first and eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:35-36, Neh. 10:31). The word servile is from the Hebrew abodah, which means, “work of any kind.” The restriction against buying and selling on the Sabbath and High Days includes dining at restaurants.

What does the Hebrew phrase hag hasukkot mean?

Correct! Wrong!

b. The Hebrew phrase hag hasukkot is translated in English as “Feast of booths.” The word hag is usually translated “Feast.” However, hag can also be translated “sacrifice,” as in the sacrificial victim for Passover (Ex. 34:25). The word hasukkot is translated “of booths.” The Feast of Tabernacles is also called the Feast of the harvest (Ex. 34:22) and the “Feast unto Yahweh” (Lev. 23:39).

We are to read the book of Deuteronomy every ______ year at the Feast of Tabernacles.

Correct! Wrong!

a. We are to read the book of the Law or Deuteronomy every sabbatical year at the Feast of Tabernacles (Deut. 31:10-13; Neh. 8:17-18).

Which Old Testament king established a feast in the eighth month to mimic the Feast of Tabernacles?

Correct! Wrong!

d. King Jeroboam established a Feast in the eighth month in Samaria to mimic the Feast of Tabernacles at Jerusalem (1Kings 12:32). He did this so that the northern tribes of Israel would not rejoin with King Rehoboam and Judah in the south. Yahweh’s prophet for this direct defiance and rejection of the Law harshly condemned Jeroboam. By this we know that there can be no man-made substitutes for Yahweh’s Feast days.

Who kept the Feast of Tabernacles in the New Testament?

Correct! Wrong!

c. The New Testament shows Yahshua the Messiah along with all twelve disciples keeping the Feast of Tabernacles (John 7). With the exception of the Feast of Trumpets, all other appointed times and Feasts that are found in the Old Testament are also referenced in the New Testament (Mark 14:12; Luke 22:8; John 7:2; 13:1; Acts 2; 12:3; 20:6, 16; 27:9; 1Cor 5:7; 16:7-8). The Feast of Trumpets can prophetically be seen in the New Testament in the trumpet-announced return of Yahshua (1Thes 4:16; 1 Cor. 15:52).

Yahshua told his half-brothers that it was not necessary for them to observe the Feasts anymore, as He Himself fulfilled them.

Correct! Wrong!

b. In John 7, Yahshua clearly told His fleshly half-brothers, “Go up unto this feast” of Tabernacles, verse 8. After they left to go, He Himself also went to keep the Feast, albeit clandestinely because the Jews wanted to kill Him, v.v. 1011. What better excuse to stay home! Yet, Yahshua was faithful in ALL things and obeyed His Father’s command to keep all the Feasts (Lev. 23), even as He taught us to do the same—without excuse and both gladly and willingly, knowing that to do so pleases Yahweh and returns blessings to us.

Those who do not observe the Feast of Tabernacles during the Millennial Kingdom will receive what?

Correct! Wrong!

b. Those who do not observe the Feast of Tabernacles during the Millennium will receive no rain (Zech. 14:16-19). In addition, all the other Feast days found in the Law will be enforced in the Millennium under the rule of the Messiah (Ezek. 45-46). Their importance could not be more clear.

What most likely does the Feast of Tabernacles foreshadow?

Correct! Wrong!

c. Yahweh’s appointed times represent future events (e.g. Yahshua’s death and resurrection at Passover and Unleavened Bread, and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost). The Feasts revolve around three main harvest times in the year, which symbolize the souls “harvested” for Yahweh’s Kingdom. Yahshua is portrayed by the firstfruits spring barley wave sheaf (at Unleavened Bread), and the saints are represented by the firstfruits wheat harvest starting at the Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) as well as the general harvest at Tabernacles in the fall. Tabernacles is also known as the Feast of Ingathering, with seven days that symbolically span the Millennial Kingdom (Ex. 23:16). During the Millennium people will be converted and “ingathered” to Yahshua. During this period Yahshua will rule with a rod of iron and restore righteousness and morality to this earth, including the complete restoration of Yahweh’s Law and Feasts planet-wide (Micah 4:1-2; Exek. 45:21-25; Isa. 66:23).

What does the Last Great Day most likely foreshadow?

Correct! Wrong!

d. The Last Great Day typifies the Great White Throne Judgment of mankind. If Yahweh’s appointed times (Heb. moedim) represent His plan for mankind (Col. 2:16), then the Last Great Day denotes the conclusion of Yahweh’s initial plan for mankind, i.e. the Great White Throne Judgment. After this event death will be eliminated and a new chapter will be revealed (Rev. 20:11-15).

Lesson 10 — Feast of Tabernacles
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Lesson 9 — Day of Atonement

Considered the holiest day of the year in Judaism, the Day of Atonement is the only observance on which we are commanded to “afflict our souls.” What this means and what lessons this day presents to the True Worshiper today are an important part of the salvation plan.

The Day of Atonement is five days after the Feast of Trumpets and ten days before the Feast of Tabernacles

Correct! Wrong!

b. The Day of Atonement is ten days after the Feast of Trumpets and five days prior to the Feast of Tabernacles. It is observed on the tenth day of the seventh scriptural month, which equates to our September-October (Lev. 23:27).

As a result of Yahshua’s sacrifice, the Day of Atonement is no longer necessary to observe.

Correct! Wrong!

b. Yahshua’s sacrifice did not nullify the responsibility to keep the Day of Atonement. The Day of Atonement was an obligation for Israel anciently as well as on into the Millennial Kingdom (Lev. 23:27-32 and Ezek. 45-46). Therefore, this observance continues to be a requirement today (Rom. 9:4). Yahshua’s sacrifice increased our responsibility to keep the law (Heb. 10:26-29). With Yahweh’s law now in our minds and hearts (Heb. 8:10), we have a better understanding coupled with a greater desire to be obedient. This moed or appointed time is a statute Yahweh established forever, throughout all generations (Lev. 23:31).

The Day of Atonement is absent from the New Testament.

Correct! Wrong!

b. The Day of Atonement is fully in force in the New Testament. The “fast” spoken of in Acts 27:9 is referring to the Day of Atonement. “Now when much time was spent, and when sailing was now dangerous, because the fast was now already past, Paul admonished them.” Strong’s Concordance defines the word fast here as, “abstinence (from lack of food, or voluntary and religious); spec. the fast of the Day of Atonement.” Clearly Paul and the True Worshipers were still keeping a fast on Atonement as the law commanded— long after Yahshua’s death—otherwise it would not be mentioned here.

The Hebrew phrase yom kippur literally means_______.

Correct! Wrong!

a. The Hebrew phrase “yom kippur” signifies “the day of expiation.” The word expiation means “making amends, showing remorse, or suffering punishment for a wrongdoing.” On this day Yahweh forgave Israel for their sins.

The Day of Atonement prohibits ________________.

Correct! Wrong!

d. The Day of Atonement prohibits eating and drinking (“afflict your souls,” Lev. 23:27); buying and selling (Neh. 10:31), and work of any kind (Lev. 23:30). The word “afflict” is from the Hebrew anah and means to “depress, abase self, weaken.” It is the same word used in Ezra 8:21, where the prophet “proclaimed a fast...that we might afflict ourselves.” While some work is allowed on other Feasts like Unleavened Bread for preparing “that which every man must eat” (Ex. 12:16), there is to be no servile work of any kind on Atonement (Num. 29:7).

The High Priest offered a ______ for a sin offering for himself and his family on the Day of Atonement.

Correct! Wrong!

c. The High Priest offered a bull for a sin offering for himself and his family on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:6). Before the High Priest could make atonement for the congregation he first had to make atonement or expiation for himself and his household.

On the Day of Atonement, which goat represented the lot cast for Yahweh?

Correct! Wrong!

a. Yahweh’s lot depicted the goat used for the sin offering (Lev. 16:9), which prefigured Yahshua the Messiah. It was Yahweh’s decision or lot that decreed Yahshua’s death and atonement (Isa. 53:10; John 3:16). In addition, as the goat on the Day of Atonement died to atone for the congregation, Yahshua died to atone for the sins of all people (John 3:15; Heb. 10:26).

Who likely is represented by the scapegoat?

Correct! Wrong!

b. The scapegoat likely represents Satan the devil. With this Barnes’ Notes agrees: “By this expressive outward sign the sins were sent back to the author of sin himself, ‘the entirely separate one,’ who was banished from the realm of grace.” When the author of salvation, Yahshua the Messiah, returns to this earth he will bind Satan and banish him into the wilderness, symbolized by the bottomless pit (Rev. 20:13). All sin will be put back on the head of Satan, as the High Priest did in a symbolic way in the ritual with the scapegoat (Lev. 16:21). In so doing Yahshua will bring back peace and righteousness by expelling the author of destruction, Satan the Adversary.

The Day of Atonement marks the beginning of the _______.

Correct! Wrong!

d. The Day of Atonement marks the beginning of the Sabbatical as well as the Jubilee (Lev. 25:9). During both Sabbatical (every 7th year) and Jubilee (every 50th year) the land under our control is allowed to rest as we neither plant nor harvest (Lev. 25:3-5, 11). On the sabbatical all slaves were to be released and debts forgiven. In addition, at the Jubilee all land was to be returned to its original owners (Lev. 25:1050). Yahshua’s likely return on a Jubilee year will, through the resurrection, set His chosen free from slavery to sin and verify His payment of the death-debt incurred by man’s sin (Isa. 63:4). Ownership and control of all lands will be taken from sinful man and his governments and will revert to the original ownership and righteous control of Yahshua and His saints under Yahweh.

What article(s) of clothing did the High Priest wear on the Day of Atonement?

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d. On the Day of Atonement the High Priest had to wear special garments consisting of linen breeches, linen girdle, and linen mitre (Lev. 16:4). These garments were made of pure white linen, which represented holiness and righteousness. Yahshua is our pure and righteous High Priest today. The garments that were worn by the High Priest were not the same as the official dress of the ordinary priests, as the girdle of that dress was colored (Ex. 28:39-40).

The High Priest sprinkled the blood _____ times upon the east side of the mercy seat on the Day of Atonement.

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d. The High Priest sprinkled sacrificial blood seven times upon the east side of the mercy seat on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:14). The number seven symbolizes perfection. The mercy seat is the lid that covered the Ark of the Covenant and on which Yahweh was manifest between the cherubim. The name mercy seat is the Hebrew kipporeth, hence the Hebrew name for Atonement, Yom Kippur or “Day of Covering.” It was the propitiatory covering for the sins of man that marked this observance.

Yahweh’s moedim (appointed times) foreshadow future events (Col. 2:16); what might the Day of Atonement foreshadow?

Correct! Wrong!

b. The Day of Atonement foreshadows sanctification of the firstfruits at Yahshua’s return, possibly on the Feast of Trumpets. It is also believed that the Feast of Tabernacles depicts the thousand-year period otherwise known as the Millennium in which Yahshua will rule as King. Between the Feast of Trumpets and the Feast of Tabernacles are fifteen days. By some, including a portion of the Jews, this period is considered a sanctification period, which if true, would correspond with the conjecture that this moed may represent the sanctification of those who are raised in the first resurrection upon Yahweh’s return.

Lesson 9 — Day of Atonement
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